This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements reflect the views of our management regarding current expectations and projections about future events and are based on currently available information. Actual results could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended
December 31, 2021, Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors," as well as those discussed elsewhere in this report. COVID-19, and the volatile regional and global economic conditions stemming from it, and additional or unforeseen effects from the COVID-19 pandemic, could also give rise to or aggravate these risk factors, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations (including revenues and profitability) and/or stock price. Further, COVID-19 may also affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The use of words such as "anticipates," "believes," "could," "estimates," "expects," "goal," "intends," "likely," "may," "plans," "potential," "predicts," "projected," "seeks," "should" and "will," or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, among others, generally identify forward-looking statements; however, these words are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. In addition, any statements that refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. We are not under any obligation to, and do not intend to, publicly update or review any of these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, even if experience or future events make it clear that any expected results expressed or implied by those forward-looking statements will not be realized. Please carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report and in our other reports filed with the SECthat attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, prospects and results of operations. The information included in this management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes included in this Quarterly Report, and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Expedia Group'smission is to power global travel for everyone, everywhere. We believe travel is a force for good. Travel is an essential human experience that strengthens connections, broadens horizons and bridges divides. We help reduce the barriers to travel, making it easier, more enjoyable, more attainable and more accessible. We bring the world within reach for customers and partners around the globe. We leverage our supply portfolio, platform and technology capabilities across an extensive portfolio of consumer brands, and provide solutions to our business partners, to empower travelers to efficiently research, plan, book and experience travel. We make available, on a stand-alone and package basis, travel services provided by numerous lodging properties, airlines, car rental companies, activities and experiences providers, cruise lines, alternative accommodations property owners and managers, and other travel product and service companies. We also offer travel and non-travel advertisers access to a potential source of incremental traffic and transactions through our various media and advertising offerings on our websites. For additional information about our portfolio of brands, see the disclosure set forth in Part I, Item 1, Business, under the caption "Management Overview" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
All percentages within this section are calculated on actual, unrounded numbers.
The COVID-19 pandemic, and measures to contain the virus, including government travel restrictions and quarantine orders, have had a significant negative impact on the travel industry. COVID-19 has negatively impacted consumer sentiment and consumer's ability to travel, and many of our supply partners, particularly airlines and hotels, continue to operate at reduced but improving service levels. Additionally, further health-related events, political instability, geopolitical conflicts, acts of terrorism, significant fluctuations in currency values, sustained levels of increased inflation, sovereign debt issues, and natural disasters, are examples of other events that could have a negative impact on the travel industry in the future. More specifically, the recent
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Ukraineconflict has had a varying impact on the travel industry and potential broader economic uncertainties, and it remains unclear what the extent of the impact on future results will be. Our financial and operating results for both 2020 and 2021 were significantly impacted due to the decrease in travel demand related to COVID-19. During the first half of 2022, we have experienced an increase in travel demand and gross bookings have nearly recovered as of the second quarter to pre-COVID levels. However, the full duration and total impact of COVID-19 and related variants remains uncertain, and it is difficult to predict the future impacts on the travel industry and, in particular, our business. In addition, COVID-19 has also had broader economic impacts, including at times an increase in unemployment levels and reduction in economic activity globally. As the recovery unfolds, staffing shortages have also been experienced across most of the hospitality industry. Broader, sustained negative economic impacts could continue to put strain on our suppliers, business and service partners, which increases the risk of credit losses and service level or other disruptions. Our future results of operations may be subject to volatility, particularly in the short-term, due to the impact of the above trends. Prior to the onset of COVID-19, we began to execute a cost savings initiative aimed at simplifying the organization and increasing efficiency. Following the onset of COVID-19, we accelerated execution on several of these cost savings initiatives and took additional actions to reduce costs to help mitigate the impact to demand from COVID-19 and reduce our monthly cash usage. While some cost actions during COVID-19 were temporary and intended to minimize cash usage during this disruption, we expect to continue to benefit from the majority of the savings as business conditions return to more normalized levels. In 2021, we successfully achieved the previously outlined annualized run-rate fixed costs savings of $700to $750 millioncompared to the fourth quarter of 2019 exit rate, as well as the greater than $200 millionin variable cost savings, at 2019 volume levels. We also believe we have improved our marketing efficiency and continue to evaluate additional opportunities to increase efficiency and improve operational effectiveness across the Company.
As a result of these cost savings initiatives, we expect Adjusted EBITDA margins to increase compared to historical levels when revenue returns to more normalized levels.
Increased usage and familiarity with the internet continues to drive rapid growth in online penetration of travel expenditures. Online penetration is higher in the
U.S.and European markets with online penetration rates in the emerging markets, such as Asia Pacificand Latin American regions, historically lagging behind those regions. The emerging market penetration rates increased over the past few years, and are expected to continue growing, which presents an attractive growth opportunity for our business, while also attracting many competitors to online travel. This competition intensified in recent years, and the industry is expected to remain highly competitive for the foreseeable future. In addition to the growth of online travel agencies, we see increased interest in the online travel industry from search engine companies such as Google, evidenced by continued product enhancements, including new trip planning features for users and the integration of its various travel products into the Google Traveloffering, as well as further prioritizing its own products in search results. Competitive entrants such as "metasearch" companies, including Kayak.com (owned by Booking Holdings), trivago (in which Expedia Groupowns a majority interest) as well as TripAdvisor, introduced differentiated features, pricing and content compared with the legacy online travel agency companies, as well as various forms of direct or assisted booking tools. Further, airlines and lodging companies are aggressively pursuing direct online distribution of their products and services. In addition, the increasing popularity of the "sharing economy," accelerated by online penetration, has had a direct impact on the travel and lodging industry. Businesses such as Airbnb, Vrbo (previously HomeAway, which Expedia Groupacquired in December 2015) and Booking.com(owned by Booking Holdings) have emerged as leaders, bringing incremental alternative accommodation and vacation rental inventory to the market. Many other competitors, including vacation rental metasearch players, continue to emerge in this space, which is expected to continue to grow as a percentage of the global accommodation market. Finally, traditional consumer ecommerce and group buying websites expanded their local offerings into the travel market by adding hotel offers to their websites. The online travel industry also saw the development of alternative business models and variations in the timing of payment by travelers and to suppliers, which in some cases place pressure on historical business models. In particular, the agency hotel model saw rapid adoption in Europe. Expedia Groupfacilitates both merchant (Expedia Collect) and agency ( Hotel Collect) hotel offerings with our hotel supply partners through both agency-only contracts as well as our hybrid Expedia Traveler Preference ("ETP") program, which offers travelers the choice of whether to pay Expedia Groupat the time of booking or pay the hotel at the time of stay. In 2020, we shifted to managing our marketing investments holistically across the brand portfolio in our Retail segment to optimize results for the Company, and making decisions on a market by market and customer segment basis that we think are appropriate based on the relative growth opportunity, the expected returns, and the competitive environment. Over time, intense competition historically led to aggressive marketing efforts by the travel suppliers and intermediaries, and a meaningful 22
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unfavorable impact on our overall marketing efficiencies and operating margins. During 2020, we increased our focus on opportunities to differentiate brands across customer and geographic segments, increase marketing efficiency, drive a higher proportion of transactions through direct channels and ultimately improve the balance of transaction growth and profitability.
Lodging includes hotel accommodations and alternative accommodations. As a percentage of our total worldwide revenue in the second quarter of 2022, lodging accounted for 75%. As a result of the improvement in travel demand this year, room nights stayed grew 45% in the first half of 2022, as compared to a growth of 35% in 2021 and a decline of 55% in 2020. The timing of recovery in consumer sentiment on travel and on staying at hotels has, and will continue to be, a factor in our level of room night growth, and we expect that to vary by country. Average Daily Rates ("ADRs") for rooms stayed for
Expedia Groupincreased 3% in 2020, increased 20% in 2021 and increased 13% in the first half of 2022. During 2021 and the first half of 2022, the increase in ADRs for our Vrbo business, which carries a higher ADR than hotels, remains elevated compared to years prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. The uncertain environment as a result of COVID-19, including travel restrictions and shifts in consumer behavior, the mix of our lodging bookings across geographies and types of accommodations, and general variability in supply and demand, make it difficult to predict ADR trends in the near-term.
Hotel. We generate the majority of our revenue through the facilitation of hotel reservations (stand-alone and package bookings). After rolling out ETP globally over a period of several years, during which time we reduced negotiated economics in certain instances to compensate for hotel supply partners absorbing expenses such as credit card fees and customer service costs, our relationships and overall economics with hotel supply partners have been broadly stable in recent years. As we continue to expand the breadth and depth of our global hotel offering, in some cases we have reduced our economics in various geographies based on local market conditions. These impacts are due to specific initiatives intended to drive greater global size and scale through faster overall room night growth. Additionally, increased promotional activities such as growing loyalty programs contribute to declines in revenue per room night and profitability. Since our hotel supplier agreements are generally negotiated on a percentage basis, any increase or decrease in ADRs has an impact on the revenue we earn per room night. Over the course of the last several years, occupancies and ADRs in the lodging industry generally increased on a currency-neutral basis in a gradually improving overall travel environment. Other factors could pressure ADR trends, including the continued growth in hotel supply in recent years and the increase in alternative accommodation inventory. Further, while the global lodging industry remains very fragmented, there has been consolidation in the hotel space among chains as well as ownership groups. In the meantime, certain hotel chains have been focusing on driving direct bookings on their own websites and mobile applications by advertising lower rates than those available on third-party websites as well as incentives such as loyalty points, increased or exclusive product availability and complimentary Wi-Fi. Alternative Accommodations. With our acquisition of Vrbo (previously
HomeAway) and all of its brands in December 2015, we expanded into the fast growing alternative accommodations market. Vrbo is a leader in this market and represents an attractive growth opportunity for Expedia Group. Vrbo has transitioned from a listings-based classified advertising model to an online transactional model that optimizes for both travelers and homeowner and property manager partners, with a goal of increasing monetization and driving growth through investments in marketing as well as in product and technology. Vrbo offers hosts subscription-based listing or pay-per-booking service models. It also generates revenue from a traveler service fee for bookings. In addition, we have actively moved to integrate Vrbo listings into our global Retail services, as well as directly add alternative accommodation listings to our offerings, to position our key global brands to offer a full range of lodging options for consumers.
The airline industry has been dramatically impacted by COVID-19. As a result of the significantly reduced air travel demand due to government travel restrictions and the impact on consumer sentiment related to COVID-19, airlines have been operating with less capacity and passenger traffic has declined significantly. While we have experienced improvement in air bookings in the first half of 2022 and throughout 2021, versus 2020, it continues to lag lodging bookings and remains below 2019 levels. The recovery in air travel remains difficult to predict, and may not correlate with the recovery in lodging demand. According to the
Transportation Security Administration("TSA"), air traveler 7-day average throughput declined 95% in April 2020compared to prior year levels. The declines moderated to down approximately 20% by the end of 2021, and as of mid-July 2022were down 12%, compared to 2019 levels. In addition, there is significant correlation between airline revenue and fuel prices, and fluctuations in fuel prices generally take time to be reflected in air revenue. Given current volatility, it is uncertain how fuel prices could impact airfares. 23
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We could encounter pressure on air remuneration as air carriers combine, certain supply agreements renew, and as we continue to add airlines to ensure local coverage in new markets.
Air ticket volumes increased 20% in the first half of 2022 and 43% in 2021, compared to a decline of 63% in 2020. As a percentage of our total worldwide revenue in the second quarter of 2022, air accounted for 3%.
Advertising & Media
Our advertising and media business is principally driven by revenue generated by trivago, a leading hotel metasearch website, and Expedia Group Media Solutions, which is responsible for generating advertising revenue on our global online travel brands. In the second quarter of 2022, we generated
$213 millionof advertising and media revenue, a 33% increase from the same period in 2021, representing 7% of our total worldwide revenue. Given the decline in travel demand related to COVID-19, online travel agencies dramatically reduced marketing spend, including on trivago, and given the uncertain duration and impact of COVID-19 it is difficult to predict when spend will recover to normalized levels. In response, in 2020, trivago significantly reduced its marketing spend and took additional actions to lower operating expenses, which continued throughout 2021 and through the first half of 2022. We expect trivago to continue to experience pressure on revenue and profit until online travel agencies and other hotel suppliers see consumer demand that warrants increasing their advertising spend with trivago.
As we endeavor to power global travel for everyone, everywhere our focus is to: leverage our brand and supply strength, and our platform, to provide greater services and value to our travelers, suppliers and business partners, and generate sustained, profitable growth. Leverage Brand and Supply Strength to Power the Travel Ecosystem. We believe the strength of our brand portfolio and consistent enhancements to product and service offerings, combined with our global scale and broad-based supply, drive increasing value to customers and customer demand. With our significant global audience of travelers, and our deep and broad selection of travel products, we are also able to provide value to supply partners wanting to grow their business through a better understanding of travel retailing and consumer demand in addition to reaching consumers in markets beyond their reach. Our deep product and supply footprint allows us to tailor offerings to target different types of consumers and travel needs, employ geographic segmentation in markets around the world, and leverage brand differentiation, among other benefits. Recently, we shifted to more of a unified brand strategy with an increased focus on uniting our retail brands and teams under one centralized group, which we believe will enable us to drive further value to travelers. For example, in 2021, we announced plans to unify and expand our existing loyalty programs into one global rewards platform spanning all products and global brands. We also market to consumers through a variety of channels, including internet search, metasearch and social media websites, and having multiple brands appear in search results also increases the likelihood of attracting new visitors. Further, we are focusing on building longer term customer relationships. To drive this, we need to engage our customers more frequently, generate more repeat business and drive more transactions on a direct basis. Two key factors drive the value of a traveler in our view - their membership in our loyalty program and the usage of our app. We hence are focused on converting our traffic to join our loyalty programs and use of our app. We believe that will in the long-term increase conversion from our traffic, increase repeat rates, lower acquisition cost of travelers and ultimately drive increased lifetime value of our travelers. Leverage Our Platform to Deliver More Rapid Product Innovation Resulting in Better Traveler Experiences. During 2020,
Expedia Groupshifted to a platform operating model with more unified technology, product, data engineering and data science teams building services and capabilities that are leveraged across our business units to serve our end customers and provide value-add services to our travel suppliers. This model enables us to deliver more scalable services and operate more efficiently. All of our transaction-based businesses share and benefit from our platform infrastructure, including customer servicing and support, data centers, search capabilities and transaction processing functions, including payment processing and fraud operations. As we continue to evolve our platform infrastructure, our focus is on developing technical capabilities that support various travel products while using common applications and frameworks. We believe this strategy will enable us to: build in parallel because of simpler, standard architecture; ship products faster; create more innovative solutions; and achieve greater scale. And ultimately, we believe this will result in faster product innovation and therefore better traveler experiences, which is a bigger focus for the Company going forward. In addition, over time, as we enable domains around application development frameworks, we believe we can unlock additional platform service opportunities beyond our internal brands and other business travel partners.
We generally experience seasonal fluctuations in the demand for our travel services. For example, traditional leisure travel bookings are generally the highest in the first three quarters as travelers plan and book their spring, summer and winter 24
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holiday travel. The number of bookings typically decreases in the fourth quarter. Since revenue for most of our travel services, including merchant and agency hotel, is recognized as the travel takes place rather than when it is booked, revenue typically lags bookings by several weeks for our hotel business and can be several months or more for our alternative accommodations business. Historically, Vrbo has seen seasonally stronger bookings in the first quarter of the year, with the relevant stays occurring during the peak summer travel months. The seasonal revenue impact is exacerbated with respect to income by the nature of our variable cost of revenue and direct sales and marketing costs, which we typically realize in closer alignment to booking volumes, and the more stable nature of our fixed costs. Furthermore, operating profits for our primary advertising business, trivago, have typically been experienced in the second half of the year, particularly the fourth quarter, as selling and marketing costs offset revenue in the first half of the year as we typically increase marketing during the busy booking period for spring, summer and winter holiday travel. As a result on a consolidated basis, revenue and income are typically the lowest in the first quarter and highest in the third quarter. The growth of our international operations, advertising business or a change in our product mix, including the growth of Vrbo, may influence the typical trend of the seasonality in the future. Impacts from COVID-19 disrupted our typical seasonal pattern for bookings, revenue, profit and cash flows during 2020 and 2021. Significantly higher cancellations and reduced booking volumes, particularly in the first half of 2020, resulted in material operating losses and negative cash flow. Booking and travel trends improved in the second half of 2020, in 2021, and in the first half of 2022. This has resulted in working capital benefits and positive cash flow more akin to typical historical trends. It remains difficult to forecast the seasonality for the upcoming quarters, given the uncertainty related to COVID-19 and the shape and timing of any sustained recovery.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that we believe are important in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements because they require that we use judgment and estimates in applying those policies. We prepare our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in
the United States("GAAP"). Preparation of the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements as well as revenue and expenses during the periods reported. We base our estimates on historical experience, where applicable, and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
There are certain critical estimates that we believe require significant judgment in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if:
•It requires us to make an assumption because information was not available at the time or it included matters that were highly uncertain at the time we were making the estimate; and
• Changes in the estimate or different estimates that we could have selected may have had a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created and may continue to create significant uncertainty in macroeconomic conditions, which may cause further business disruptions and adversely impact our results of operations. As a result, many of our estimates and assumptions required increased judgment and carry a higher degree of variability and volatility. As events continue to evolve and additional information becomes available, our estimates may change materially in future periods For additional information about our other critical accounting policies and estimates, see the disclosure included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended
December 31, 2021as well as updates in the current fiscal year provided in Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Occupancy and Other Taxes
Legal Proceedings. We are currently involved in eight lawsuits brought by or against states, cities and counties over issues involving the payment of hotel occupancy and other taxes. We continue to defend these lawsuits vigorously. With respect to the principal claims in these matters, we believe that the statutes and/or ordinances at issue do not apply to us or the services we provide, namely the facilitation of travel planning and reservations, and, therefore, that we do not owe the taxes that are claimed to be owed. We believe that the statutes and ordinances at issue generally impose occupancy and other taxes on entities that own, operate or control hotels (or similar businesses) or furnish or provide hotel rooms or similar accommodations
For additional information and other recent developments on these and other legal proceedings, see Part II, Item 1, Legal Proceedings.
We have established a reserve for the potential settlement of issues related to hotel occupancy and other tax litigation, consistent with applicable accounting principles and in light of all current facts and circumstances, in the amount of
$50 millionas of both June 30, 2022and December 31, 2021. 25
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Certain jurisdictions, including without limitation the states of
New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Minnesota, Oregon, Rhode Island, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Arizona, Wisconsin, Idaho, Arkansas, Indiana, Maine, Nebraska, Vermont, Mississippi, Virginia, the city of New York, and the District of Columbia, have enacted legislation seeking to tax online travel company services as part of sales or other taxes for hotel and/or other accommodations and/or car rental. In addition, in certain jurisdictions, we have entered into voluntary collection agreements pursuant to which we have agreed to voluntarily collect and remit taxes to state and/or local taxing jurisdictions. We are currently remitting taxes to a number of jurisdictions, including without limitation the states of New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, North Carolina, Minnesota, Georgia, Wyoming, West Virginia, Oregon, Rhode Island, Montana, Maryland, Kentucky, Maine, Pennsylvania, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Arizona, Wisconsin, Idaho, Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Vermont, Colorado, Mississippi, Virginia, the city of New Yorkand the District of Columbia, as well as certain other jurisdictions. Pay-to-Play Certain jurisdictions may assert that we are required to pay any assessed taxes prior to being allowed to contest or litigate the applicability of the ordinances. This prepayment of contested taxes is referred to as "pay-to-play." Payment of these amounts is not an admission that we believe we are subject to such taxes and, even when such payments are made, we continue to defend our position vigorously. If we prevail in the litigation, for which a pay-to-play payment was made, the jurisdiction collecting the payment will be required to repay such amounts and also may be required to pay interest. However, any significant pay-to-play payment or litigation loss could negatively impact our liquidity.
Other Jurisdictions. We are also in various stages of inquiry or audit with various tax authorities, some of which, including the
regarding hotel occupancy taxes, may impose a pay-to-play requirement to challenge an adverse inquiry or audit result in court.
We have the following reportable segments: Retail, B2B, and trivago. Our Retail segment provides a full range of travel and advertising services to our worldwide customers through a variety of consumer brands including:
Expedia.comand Hotels.comin the United Statesand localized Expedia and Hotels.comwebsites throughout the world, Vrbo, Orbitz, Travelocity, Wotif Group, ebookers, CheapTickets, Hotwire.com, CarRentals.comand Expedia Cruises. Our B2B segment is comprised of our Expedia Business Services organization including Expedia Partner Solutions, which offers private label and co-branded products to make travel services available to travelers through third-party company branded websites, and, through its sale in November 2021, Egencia, a full-service travel management company that provides travel services to businesses and their corporate customers. Our trivago segment generates advertising revenue primarily from sending referrals to online travel companies and travel service providers from its hotel metasearch websites.
Our operating results are affected by certain metrics, such as gross bookings and revenue margin, which we believe are necessary for understanding and evaluating us. Gross bookings generally represent the total retail value of transactions booked for agency and merchant transactions, recorded at the time of booking reflecting the total price due for travel by travelers, including taxes, fees and other charges, and are reduced for cancellations and refunds. Revenue margin is defined as revenue as a percentage of gross bookings.
Gross Bookings and Revenue Margin
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Gross bookings
$ 26,139 $ 20,81526 % $ 50,551 $ 36,23739 % Revenue margin (1) 12.2 % 10.1 % 10.7 % 9.3 %
(1)trivago, which is comprised of a hotel metasearch business that differs from our transaction-based websites, does not have associated gross bookings or revenue margin. However, third-party revenue from trivago is included in revenue used to calculate total revenue margin.
During the three and six months ended
Table of Contents Results of Operations Revenue Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Revenue by Segment Retail
$ 2,420 $ 1,71541 % $ 4,160 $ 2,74052 % B2B 650 305 113 % 1,082 489 121 % trivago (Third-party revenue) 111 91 22 % 188 128 47 % Total revenue $ 3,181 $ 2,11151 % $ 5,430 $ 3,35762 % Revenue increased 51% and 62% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021 with all segments growth reflecting the improvement in travel demand. Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Revenue by Service Type Lodging $ 2,400 $ 1,53357 % $ 4,010 $ 2,43665 % Air 95 78 22 % 169 128 33 % Advertising and media(1) 213 161 33 % 379 249 53 % Other 473 339 39 % 872 544 60 % Total revenue $ 3,181 $ 2,11151 % $ 5,430 $ 3,35762 %
(1) Includes third-party revenue from trivago as well as our transaction-based websites.
Lodging revenue increased 57% and 65% for the three and six months ended
June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, on a 40% and 45% increase in room nights stayed across hotel and alternative accommodations as well as stayed ADR growth of 9% and 13%. Air revenue increased 22% for the three months ended June 30, 2022primarily driven by a 21% growth in revenue per air ticket as air travel demand remained stable despite higher airfares. Air revenue increased 33% for the six months ended June 30, 2022driven by an increase in air tickets sold of 20% and revenue per ticket of 11%. Advertising and media revenue increased 33% and 53% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, due to increases at both Expedia Group Media Solutions and trivago. All other revenue, which includes car rental, insurance, destination services, fee revenue related to our corporate travel business (through Egencia's sale in November 2021), increased 39% and 60% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, from growth in travel insurance products and car. 27
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In addition to the above segment and product revenue discussion, our revenue by business model is as follows:
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Revenue by Business Model Merchant
$ 2,125 $ 1,33859 % $ 3,610 $ 2,13469 % Agency 808 573 41 % 1,374 896 53 % Advertising, media and other 248 200 24 % 446 327 37 % Total revenue $ 3,181 $ 2,11151 % $ 5,430 $ 3,35762 % Merchant revenue increased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in merchant hotel revenue driven by an increase in room nights stayed as well as an increase in Vrbo merchant alternative accommodations revenue and travel insurance revenue.
Agency revenue increased for the three and six months ended
Advertising, media and other increased for the three and six months ended
Cost of Revenue Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Direct costs
$ 345 $ 26629 % $ 644 $ 46738 % Personnel and overhead 74 108 (31) % 146 218 (33) % Total cost of revenue $ 419 $ 37412 % $ 790 $ 68515 % % of revenue 13.2 % 17.7 % 14.6 % 20.4 % Cost of revenue primarily consists of direct costs to support our customer operations, including our customer support and telesales as well as fees to air ticket fulfillment vendors; credit card processing, including merchant fees, fraud and chargebacks; and other costs, primarily including data center and cloud costs to support our websites, supplier operations, destination supply, certain transactional level taxes as well as related personnel and overhead costs, including stock-based compensation. Cost of revenue increased $45 millionand $105 millionduring the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to higher merchant fees, customer service costs, and cloud costs as a result of increased transaction volumes, which offset lower personnel costs related to the sale of Egencia in November 2021. Selling and Marketing Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Direct costs $ 1,549 $ 1,00255 % $ 2,725 $ 1,48983 % Indirect costs 167 197 (15) % 330 374 (11) % Total selling and marketing $ 1,716 $ 1,19943 % $ 3,055 $ 1,86364 % % of revenue 53.9 % 56.8 % 56.3 % 55.5 % Selling and marketing expense primarily relates to direct costs, including traffic generation costs from search engines and internet portals, television, radio and print spending, B2B partner commissions, public relations and other costs. The remainder of the expense relates to indirect costs, including personnel and related overhead in our various brands and global supply organization as well as stock-based compensation costs. 28
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Selling and marketing expenses increased
$517 millionand $1.2 billionduring the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, primarily due to an increase in spend across all main marketing channels as well as an increase in B2B partner commissions. In addition, the decrease in indirect costs in the current year periods was primarily driven by lower personnel costs related to the sale of Egencia in November 2021.
Technology and Content
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Personnel and overhead
$ 207 $ 2042 % $ 409 $ 3788 % Other 77 72 6 % 145 145 - % Total technology and content $ 284 $ 2763 % $ 554 $ 5236 % % of revenue 8.9 % 13.1 % 10.2 % 15.6 % Technology and content expense includes product development and content expense, as well as information technology costs to support our infrastructure, back-office applications and overall monitoring and security of our networks, and is principally comprised of personnel and overhead, including stock-based compensation, as well as other costs including cloud expense and licensing and maintenance expense. Technology and content expense remained largely consistent with an increase of $8 millionduring the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021. Technology and content expense increased $31 millionduring the six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, primarily due to an increase in personnel costs resulting from the prior year's compensation change, which shifted discretionary bonuses to salary beginning in the second quarter of 2021. General and Administrative Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Personnel and overhead $ 149 $ 1481 % $ 292 $ 2689 % Professional fees and other 40 36 12 % 83 72 17 % Total general and administrative $ 189 $ 1843 % $ 375 $ 34011 % % of revenue 6.0 % 8.7 % 6.9 % 10.1 %
General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel-related costs, including our executive leadership, finance, legal and human resource functions and related stock-based compensation as well as fees for external professional services.
General and administrative expense remained largely consistent with an increase of
$5 millionduring the three months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021. General and administrative expense increased $35 millionduring the six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same period in 2021, primarily due to an increase in personnel costs resulting from the prior year's compensation change, which shifted discretionary bonuses to salary beginning in the second quarter of 2021, as well as an increase of $7 millionin stock-based compensation.
Depreciation and Amortization
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Depreciation $ 176
$ 179(2) % $ 351 $ 361(3) % Amortization of intangible assets 21 26 (17) % 43 53 (19) % Total depreciation and amortization $ 197 $ 205(4) % $ 394 $ 414(5) % 29
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$3 millionand $10 millionduring the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021. Amortization of intangible assets decreased $5 millionand $10 millionduring the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021 primarily due to the completion of amortization related to certain intangible assets.
Impairment of Intangible Assets
During the three and six months ended
June 30, 2022, we recognized intangible impairment charges of $29 millionrelated to an indefinite-lived trade name within our trivago segment. See Note 3 - Fair Value Measurements in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information.
Legal Reserves, Occupancy Tax and Other
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other
$ 2 $ (8)N/A $ 23 (9) N/A % of revenue - % (0.4) % 0.4 % (0.2) % Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other primarily consists of increases in our reserves for court decisions and the potential and final settlement of issues related to hotel occupancy and other taxes, expenses recognized related to monies paid in advance of occupancy and other tax proceedings ("pay-to-play") as well as certain other legal reserves. During the three months ended June 30, 2022, the charges primarily related to immaterial changes in our reserves related to hotel occupancy and other taxes. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the charges primarily related to certain other legal reserves for trivago as described in Note 8 - Commitments and Contingencies in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, there were net reductions to our reserve related to hotel occupancy and other taxes.
Restructuring and Related Reorganization Charges
In 2020, we committed to restructuring actions intended to simplify our businesses and improve operational efficiencies, which resulted in headcount reductions and office consolidations. As a result, we recognized
$13 millionand $42 millionin restructuring and related reorganization charges during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. We continue to actively evaluate additional cost reduction efforts and should we make decisions in future periods to take further actions we may incur additional reorganization charges.
Operating Income (Loss)
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Operating income (loss)
$ 345 $ (132)N/A $ 210 $ (501)N/A % of revenue 10.9 % (6.3) % 3.9 % (14.9) % During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we had operating income of $345 millionand $210 million, compared to operating losses of $132 millionand $501 millionfor the same periods in 2021. The improvement in the current year period was primarily due to growth in revenue in excess of operating costs. 30
Table of Contents Adjusted EBITDA by Segment Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Retail $ 582
$ 31684 % $ 770 $ 42283 % B2B (1) 156 (4) N/A 236 (61) N/A trivago 33 5 534 % 58 1 N/A Unallocated overhead costs (Corporate) (123) (116) 6 % (243) (219) 11 % Total Adjusted EBITDA (2) $ 648 $ 201223 % $ 821 $ 143476 %
(1) Includes operating results of Egencia through its sale in
November 2021. (2) Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure. See "Definition and Reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA" below for more information. Adjusted EBITDA is our primary segment operating metric. See Note 9 - Segment Information in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information on intersegment transactions, unallocated overhead costs and for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA by segment to net income (loss) attributable to Expedia Group, Inc.for the periods presented above. During the fourth quarter of 2021, we consolidated our divisional finance teams into one global finance organization, which resulted in the reclassification of expenses from Retail and B2B into our Corporate function. We have reclassified prior period segment information to conform to our current period presentation. Our Retail, B2B and trivago segments all experienced improvements in Adjusted EBITDA during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, as a result of the recovering travel demand. In addition, the B2B segment improved in part due to the absence of the prior year Adjusted EBITDA loss related to Egencia.
Unallocated overhead costs increased
Interest Income and Expense
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Interest income $ 10
$ 1502 % $ 13 $ 3279 % Interest expense (73) (83) (13) % (154) (181) (15) % Loss on debt extinguishment (24) - N/A (24) (280) (91) % Interest income increased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, as a result of higher rates of return. Interest expense decreased for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the same periods in 2021, as a result of lower average senior notes outstanding in the current year periods due to the extinguishments discussed below. As a result of the early redemption of the 3.6% and 4.5% senior unsecured notes during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $24 million, which primarily included the payment of early payment premiums as well as the write-off of unamortized discount and debt issuance costs. See Note 4 - Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information. In addition, as a result of the debt refinancing transactions during the prior year, we recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $280 millionduring the six months ended June 30, 2021, which included the payment of early payment premiums and fees as well as the write-off of unamortized debt issuance costs. 31
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Other, net is comprised of the following:
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 2022 2021 ($ in millions) Foreign exchange rate losses, net $ (14)
$ (7)$ (31) $ (18)Gains (losses) on minority equity investments, net (373) (4) (352) 4 Other 2 1 3 (1) Total other, net $ (385) $ (10)$ (380) $ (15)
For the three and six months ended
Provision for Income Taxes
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 % Change 2022 2021 % Change ($ in millions) ($ in millions) Provision for income taxes
$ 58 $ (47)N/A $ (27) $ (216)(88) % Effective tax rate 46.2 % 21.0 % 8.0 % 22.1 %
We determine our provision for income taxes for interim periods using an estimate of our annual effective tax rate. We record any changes affecting the estimated annual tax rate in the interim period in which the change occurs, including discrete items.
For the three months ended
June 30, 2022, the effective tax rate was a 46.2% expense on pre-tax loss, compared to a 21.0% benefit on pre-tax loss for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The change in the effective tax rate was primarily due to nondeductible mark-to-market adjustments to our minority equity investments as well as other discrete items. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the effective tax rate was an 8.0% benefit on pre-tax loss, compared to a 22.1% benefit on pre-tax loss for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The change in the effective tax rate was primarily due to nondeductible mark-to-market adjustments to our minority equity investments as well as other discrete items. We are subject to taxation in the United Statesand foreign jurisdictions. Our income tax filings are regularly examined by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. During the fourth quarter of 2019, the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") issued final adjustments related to transfer pricing with our foreign subsidiaries for our 2011 to 2013 tax years. The proposed adjustments would increase our U.S.taxable income by $696 million, which would result in federal tax of approximately $244 million, subject to interest. We do not agree with the position of the IRS. We filed a protest with the IRSfor our 2011 to 2013 tax years and Appeals returned our case to Exam for further review. We are also under examination by the IRSfor our 2014 to 2020 tax years. Subsequent years remain open to examination by the IRS. We do not anticipate a significant impact to our gross unrecognized tax benefits within the next 12 months related to these years. 32
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Definition and Reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA
We report Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure to
U.S.generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Adjusted EBITDA is among the primary metrics by which management evaluates the performance of the business and on which internal budgets are based. Management believes that investors should have access to the same set of tools that management uses to analyze our results. This non-GAAP measure should be considered in addition to results prepared in accordance with GAAP, but should not be considered a substitute for or superior to GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA has certain limitations in that it does not take into account the impact of certain expenses to our consolidated statements of operations. We endeavor to compensate for the limitation of the non-GAAP measure presented by also providing the most directly comparable GAAP measure and a description of the reconciling items and adjustments to derive the non-GAAP measure. Adjusted EBITDA also excludes certain items related to transactional tax matters, which may ultimately be settled in cash, and we urge investors to review the detailed disclosure regarding these matters included above, in the Legal Proceedings section, as well as the notes to the financial statements. The non-GAAP financial measure used by the Company may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) attributable to Expedia Group, Inc.adjusted for (1) net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests; (2) provision for income taxes; (3) total other expenses, net; (4) stock-based compensation expense, including compensation expense related to certain subsidiary equity plans; (5) acquisition-related impacts, including (i) amortization of intangible assets and goodwill and intangible asset impairment, (ii) gains (losses) recognized on changes in the value of contingent consideration arrangements, if any, and (iii) upfront consideration paid to settle employee compensation plans of the acquiree, if any; (6) certain other items, including restructuring; (7) items included in legal reserves, occupancy tax and other; (8) that portion of gains (losses) on revenue hedging activities that are included in other, net that relate to revenue recognized in the period; and (9) depreciation. The above items are excluded from our Adjusted EBITDA measure because these items are noncash in nature, or because the amount and timing of these items is unpredictable, not driven by core operating results and renders comparisons with prior periods and competitors less meaningful. We believe Adjusted EBITDA is a useful measure for analysts and investors to evaluate our future on-going performance as this measure allows a more meaningful comparison of our performance and projected cash earnings with our historical results from prior periods and to the results of our competitors. Moreover, our management uses this measure internally to evaluate the performance of our business as a whole and our individual business segments. In addition, we believe that by excluding certain items, such as stock-based compensation and acquisition-related impacts, Adjusted EBITDA corresponds more closely to the cash operating income generated from our business and allows investors to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting the ongoing cash earnings capabilities of our business, from which capital investments are made and debt is serviced.
The reconciliation of net income (loss) attributable to
Three months ended June 30, Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 2022 2021 (In millions) Net loss attributable to Expedia Group, Inc. $ (185)
$ (172)$ (307) $ (750)Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests - (5) (1) (8) Provision for income taxes 58 (47) (27) (216) Total other expense, net 472 92 545 473 Operating income (loss) 345 (132) 210 (501) Gain (loss) on revenue hedges related to revenue recognized (18) 3 (18) (6) Restructuring and related reorganization charges - 13 - 42 Legal reserves, occupancy tax and other 2 (8) 23 (9) Stock-based compensation 93 120 183 203 Depreciation and amortization 197 205 394 414 Impairment of intangible assets 29 - 29 - Adjusted EBITDA $ 648 $ 201$ 821 $ 143
Financial Position, Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our principal sources of liquidity are typically cash flows generated from operations, cash available under our credit facility as well as our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investment balances, which were
$5.6 billionand $4.3 billionat 33
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June 30, 2022and December 31, 2021. As of June 30, 2022, the total cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments held outside the United Stateswas $687 million( $447 millionin wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries and $240 millionin majority-owned subsidiaries). Our revolving credit facility with aggregate commitments of $2.5 billionwas essentially untapped at June 30, 2022. Managing our balance sheet prudently and maintaining appropriate liquidity have been high priorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2020, in order to best position the Company to navigate our temporary working capital changes and depressed revenue, we took a number of actions to bolster our liquidity and preserve financial flexibility. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, we continued certain of these actions, including suspension of our share repurchases and quarterly common stock dividends. In March 2022, we early redeemed all of the €650 million of outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Company's 2.5% Notes due in June 2022. The redemption price for the 2.5% Notes equaled 100% of the aggregate principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon through the redemption date. In May 2022, we early redeemed all of our $500 million3.6% Notes, and in June 2022, we early redeemed all of our $500 million4.5% Notes, which resulted in the recognition of a loss on debt extinguishment of $24 millionduring the three and six months ended June 30, 2022primarily comprised of "make-whole" premiums as well as the write-off of unamortized discount and debt issuance costs. Our credit ratings are periodically reviewed by rating agencies. As of June 30, 2022, Moody's rating was Baa3 with an outlook of "stable," S&P's rating was BBB- with an outlook of "stable" and Fitch's rating was BBB- with an outlook of "stable." Changes in our operating results, cash flows, financial position, capital structure, financial policy or capital allocations to share repurchase, dividends, investments and acquisitions could impact the ratings assigned by the various rating agencies. Should our credit ratings be adjusted downward, we may incur higher costs to borrow and/or limited access to capital markets and interest rates on the 6.25% Notes issued in May 2020, the 4.625% Notes issued in July 2020as well as the 2.95% Notes issued in March 2021will increase, which could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations. As of June 30, 2022, we were in compliance with the covenants and conditions in our revolving credit facility and outstanding debt as detailed in Note 4 - Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. Under the merchant model, we receive cash from travelers at the time of booking and we record these amounts on our consolidated balance sheets as deferred merchant bookings. We pay our airline suppliers related to these merchant model bookings generally within a few weeks after completing the transaction. For most other merchant bookings, which is primarily our merchant lodging business, we generally pay after the travelers' use and, in some cases, subsequent billing from the hotel suppliers. Therefore, generally we receive cash from the traveler prior to paying our supplier, and this operating cycle represents a working capital source of cash to us. Typically, the seasonal fluctuations in our merchant hotel bookings have affected the timing of our annual cash flows. Generally, during the first half of the year, hotel bookings have traditionally exceeded stays, resulting in much higher cash flow related to working capital. During the second half of the year, this pattern typically reverses and cash flows are typically negative. During 2020, impacts of COVID-19 disrupted our typical working capital trends. Significantly higher cancellations and reduced booking volumes, particularly in the first half of 2020, resulted in material operating losses and negative cash flow. During the first half of 2022, booking and travel trends have nearly normalized resulting in working capital benefits and positive cash flow in the current period more akin to typical historical trends. However, it remains difficult to forecast the working capital trends for the upcoming quarters, given the uncertainty related to the duration of the impact from COVID-19 and the shape and timing of any sustained recovery. Prior to COVID-19, we embarked on an ambitious cost reduction initiative to simplify the organization and increase efficiency. In response to COVID-19, we took several additional actions to further reduce costs to help mitigate the financial impact from COVID-19 and continue to improve our long-term cost structure. For 2022, we expect total capital expenditures for the full year to increase over 2021 spending levels as we look to continue to improve our technology platforms, infrastructure, operational capabilities, and in the development of service offerings and expansion of our operations. 34
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Our cash flows are as follows:
Six months ended June 30, 2022 2021 $ Change (In millions) Cash provided by (used in): Operating activities
$ 4,619 $ 4,684 $ (65)Investing activities (248) (413) 165 Financing activities (1,687) (378) (1,309)
Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents
(165) (26) (139)
For the six months ended
For the six months ended
June 30, 2022, we had net cash used in investing activities of $248 millioncompared to cash used in investing activities of $413 millionin the prior year period. The decrease was largely due to higher net sales and maturities of investments in the current year. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, net cash used in financing activities primarily included payments of $1.7 billionrelated to the extinguishment of our 2.5% Notes, 3.6% Notes and 4.5% Notes discussed above as well as $69 millionof cash paid for treasury stock activity related to the vesting of equity instruments. These uses of cash were largely offset by $114 millionof proceeds from the exercise of options and employee stock purchase plans. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, net cash used in financing activities primarily included payments of approximately $2 billionrelated to the extinguishment of debt, $618 millionof cash paid for the 50% redemption of preferred stock, $85 millionof cash paid for treasury stock activity related to the vesting of equity instruments and $50 millionin preferred stock dividends. These uses of cash were largely offset by approximately $2 billionof net proceeds from the issuance of Convertible Notes and 2.95% Notes issued in February and March 2021, respectively, as well as $379 millionof proceeds from the exercise of options and employee stock purchase plans.
Foreign exchange rate changes resulted in a decrease of our cash and restricted cash balances denominated in foreign currency during the six months ended
Other than discussed above, there have been no material changes outside the normal course of business to our contractual obligations and commercial commitments since
In our opinion, our liquidity position provides sufficient capital resources to meet our foreseeable cash needs. There can be no assurance, however, that the cost or availability of future borrowings, including refinancings, if any, will be available on terms acceptable to us.
Summarized Financial Information for Guarantors and the Issuer of
Summarized financial information of
Expedia Group, Inc.(the "Parent") and our subsidiaries that are guarantors of our debt facility and instruments (the "Guarantor Subsidiaries") is shown below on a combined basis as the " Obligor Group." The debt facility and instruments are guaranteed by certain of our wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries and rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The guarantees are full, unconditional, joint and several with the exception of certain customary automatic subsidiary release provisions. In this summarized financial information of the Obligor Group, all intercompany balances and transactions between the Parent and Guarantor Subsidiaries have been eliminated and all information excludes subsidiaries that are not issuers or guarantors of our debt facility and instruments, including earnings from and investments in these entities. 35
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