Dozens of Wild Horses Killed by Mystery Disease at Colorado Facility

A well-trafficked federal wild horse facility in Colorado is under quarantine and veterinarians are on site tests after at least 85 horses have died from an “unknown yet highly contagious” disease, the Bureau of Land Management said.

The bureau, which is in charge of caring for the nation’s wild horses, said in a news release on Monday that 57 had died since the outbreak began over the weekend in Canon City, Colo., more than 100 miles south of Denver. By Wednesday evening, 28 more deaths were recorded.

It’s the second time in recent weeks that the bureau had to shut down a facility because of a widespread illness among horses. In late March, a facility in Wyoming was closed and an adoption event for wild horses was postponed because some animals developed Streptococcus equi, a bacterial similar to strep throat infection.

The recent deaths are part of a larger struggle to sustainably manage wild horses and burros in the West. There are about 86,000 animals roaming public lands, more than three times what the bureau says lands can support.

In an attempt to keep populations in check, the bureau rounds up thousands of horses every year and offers them for adoption. But the number of people willing to adopt an untrained mustang has almost never equaled the number of animals the government removes, so a surplus has built up year by year in a collection of corrals and pastures that the bureau calls “the holding system.”

The system now holds more than 60,000 animals at a cost of about $72 million a year.

The holding system includes long-term ranches in the tall grass prairie where unwanted horses can spend decades, as well as short-term feedlots where crowded corrals temporarily hold fresh horses off the range.

The short-term facility in Cañon City sits next to a Colorado state prison, where inmates train horses. It acts as a way station where animals from different herds that roam over 33 million acres of open range in the West are brought together in corrals that cover only about 50 acres, making it a potential breeding ground for disease. It is meant as a temporary stop-over, but because of overcrowding in the holding system, horses often stay for many months.

There are currently 2,550 horses in Canon City’s dusty maze of corrals — just a few hundred shy of its 3,000 maximum. The facility is now under a voluntary quarantine, the news release said.

“We are working with local, state and federal officials to determine what is impacting horses in the facility and how we can respond as effectively as possible,” said Stephen Leonard, the Colorado wild horse and burro program manager for the Bureau of Land Management.

The bureau did not respond to follow-up questions, including how much longer the Cañon City facility would remain under quarantine.

Most of the horses affected by the unknown disease were removed last year from a swath of sage-dotted mesas in northwestern Colorado known as the West Douglas Herd Area, officials said. That roundup was done to protect the health of the horses, the rangeland and public land from overuse by excess horses, the bureau said. At the time, a portion of the herd was tested for a potentially fatal virus called equine infectious anemia, which can spread through fly bites. Though all the tests were negative, the West Douglas horses were temporarily kept separate from other horses, according to the bureau.

“This is the first situation that I’m aware of that so many horses died so quickly and so suddenly,” Scott Beckstead, director of campaigns for the Center for a Humane Economy, a nonprofit animal welfare organization, said on Wednesday.

Mr. Beckstead said holding he thought the outbreak was an indication that the conditions in the facilities were too crowded and filthy. “We’ve seen photographs of the horses at Cañon City,” he said. It’s cramped. The horses are standing closely together. It’s just a perfect environment for disease to spread.”

Suzanne Roy, executive director for the American Wild Horse Campaign, said in a statement on Wednesday that the bureau was putting the animals in harm’s way. “These are not livestock,” she said. “They are an iconic and federally protected wildlife species.” Ms. Roy also called for a full investigation into the bureau’s off-range wild horse holding system.

The Bureau of Land Management oversees about 245 million acres of public lands, mostly in the West, and has been overseeing wild horses and burros since they were protected by federal law in 1971.

The bureau has been under pressure for decades by both horse-advocacy groups and lawmakers to shrink the size of the holding system. That has led to repeated scandals, in which thousands of protected wild horses were adopted out of the system only to immediately end up at slaughter houses.

In 2019, the bureau began paying adopters $1,000 a head to take animals off its hands. Adoptions have nearly tripled since the program started, but an investigation by The New York Times showed a large number of those horses were sold to slaughter buyers almost as soon as the checks cleared.

Despite increased adoptions, the number of horses stored in the holding system has only grown, increasing by about 10,000 since 2020, partly because of an increase in roundups.

The bureau has proposed doubling the number of animals it rounds up each year, to about 20,000, in an attempt to limit populations on the range, but the move would drastically increase the number of horses in the system.

“The United States government is on a campaign to remove large numbers of these federally protected animals to benefit the private live stock industry,” Mr. Beckstead said. He advised that, in the short term, the bureau should halt the mass roundups until heathy and safe conditions can be guaranteed.

“The federal government is going to cost the American taxpayer tens of millions of dollars to round up tens of thousands of wild horses,” he said. “It’s a financial boondoggle because the cost of caring for those animals is going to be astronomical and it would be far cheaper to leave them on their designated habitat and manage them there on the range.”

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